Vega Sun Inhaltsverzeichnis
Wega, auch Vega, oder in der Bayer-Bezeichnung α Lyrae, ist der Hauptstern des Sternbildes Leier. Der Name leitet sich vom arabischen Ausdruck النسر الواقع, an-nasr al-wāqiʿ ab, was in Übersetzung „herabstoßender “ bedeutet. Datei:Vega-Sun interassebroek.be Es ist keine höhere Auflösung vorhanden. Vega-Sun_interassebroek.be ( × Pixel, Dateigröße: KB, MIME-Typ. English: Vega and Sun in scale. Deutsch: Größenvergleich von Wega und der Sonne. Date, 18 January Source, Own. VEGA SUN - Schiffsdaten, Foto und letzte 5 Zielhäfen (IMO ) - LPG Tanker. VEGA SUN (IMO: , MMSI: ) ist LPG Tanker. Es fährt unter der Flagge von Liberia. Es wurde gebaut in
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It is the fifth-brightest star in the night sky , and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere , after Arcturus.
Vega has been extensively studied by astronomers, leading it to be termed "arguably the next most important star in the sky after the Sun".
Vega has functioned as the baseline for calibrating the photometric brightness scale and was one of the stars used to define the zero point for the UBV photometric system.
Vega is only about a tenth of the age of the Sun, but since it is 2. Vega has an unusually low abundance of the elements with a higher atomic number than that of helium.
This causes the equator to bulge outward due to centrifugal effects, and, as a result, there is a variation of temperature across the star's photosphere that reaches a maximum at the poles.
From Earth, Vega is observed from the direction of one of these poles. Based on an observed excess emission of infrared radiation, Vega appears to have a circumstellar disk of dust.
This dust is likely to be the result of collisions between objects in an orbiting debris disk , which is analogous to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System.
Vega can often be seen near the zenith in the mid-northern latitudes during the evening in the Northern Hemisphere summer. Around July 1, Vega reaches midnight culmination when it crosses the meridian at that time.
Each night the positions of the stars appear to change as the Earth rotates. However, when a star is located along the Earth's axis of rotation, it will remain in the same position and thus is called a pole star.
The direction of the Earth's axis of rotation gradually changes over time in a process known as the precession of the equinoxes.
At present the pole star is Polaris , but around 12, BC the pole was pointed only five degrees away from Vega. Through precession, the pole will again pass near Vega around AD 14, This star lies at a vertex of a widely spaced asterism called the Summer Triangle , which consists of Vega plus the two first-magnitude stars Altair , in Aquila , and Deneb in Cygnus.
The Summer Triangle is recognizable in the northern skies for there are few other bright stars in its vicinity.
Astrophotography , the photography of celestial objects, began in when John William Draper took an image of the Moon using the daguerreotype process.
On July 17, , Vega became the first star other than the Sun to be photographed, when it was imaged by William Bond and John Adams Whipple at the Harvard College Observatory , also with a daguerreotype.
These were later identified as lines from the Hydrogen Balmer series. The distance to Vega can be determined by measuring its parallax shift against the background stars as the Earth orbits the Sun.
The first person to publish a star's parallax was Friedrich G. This change cast further doubt on Struve's data. Thus most astronomers at the time, including Struve, credited Bessel with the first published parallax result.
However, Struve's initial result was actually close to the currently accepted value of 0. The brightness of a star, as seen from Earth, is measured with a standardized, logarithmic scale.
This apparent magnitude is a numerical value that decreases in value with increasing brightness of the star.
To standardize the magnitude scale, astronomers chose Vega to represent magnitude zero at all wavelengths. Thus, for many years, Vega was used as a baseline for the calibration of absolute photometric brightness scales.
This approach is more convenient for astronomers, since Vega is not always available for calibration and varies in brightness. The UBV photometric system measures the magnitude of stars through ultraviolet , blue, and yellow filters, producing U , B , and V values, respectively.
Vega is one of six A0V stars that were used to set the initial mean values for this photometric system when it was introduced in the s.
In effect, the magnitude scale has been calibrated so that the magnitude of these stars is the same in the yellow, blue, and ultraviolet parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This range of variability was near the limits of observational capability for that time, and so the subject of Vega's variability has been controversial.
The magnitude of Vega was measured again in at the David Dunlap Observatory and showed some slight variability. Thus it was suggested that Vega showed occasional low-amplitude pulsations associated with a Delta Scuti variable.
Thus the variability was thought to possibly be the result of systematic errors in measurement. Vega became the first solitary main-sequence star beyond the Sun known to be an X-ray emitter when in it was observed from an imaging X-ray telescope launched on an Aerobee from the White Sands Missile Range.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS discovered an excess of infrared radiation coming from the star, and this was attributed to energy emitted by the orbiting dust as it was heated by the star.
Vega's spectral class is A0V, making it a blue-tinged white main sequence star that is fusing hydrogen to helium in its core.
Since more massive stars use their fusion fuel more quickly than smaller ones, Vega's main-sequence lifetime is roughly one billion years, a tenth of the Sun's.
After leaving the main sequence, Vega will become a class-M red giant and shed much of its mass, finally becoming a white dwarf.
At present, Vega has more than twice the mass  of the Sun and its bolometric luminosity is about 40 times the Sun's. Because it is rapidly-rotating and seen nearly pole-on, its apparent luminosity, calculated assuming it was the same brightness all over, is about 57 times the Sun's.
Most of the energy produced at Vega's core is generated by the carbon—nitrogen—oxygen cycle CNO cycle , a nuclear fusion process that combines protons to form helium nuclei through intermediary nuclei of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
The CNO cycle is highly temperature sensitive, which results in a convection zone about the core  that evenly distributes the 'ash' from the fusion reaction within the core region.
The overlying atmosphere is in radiative equilibrium. This is in contrast to the Sun, which has a radiation zone centered on the core with an overlying convection zone.
The energy flux from Vega has been precisely measured against standard light sources. Using spectropolarimetry , a magnetic field has been detected on the surface of Vega by a team of astronomers at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi.
This is the first such detection of a magnetic field on a spectral class A star that is not an Ap chemically peculiar star.
Vega has a rotation period of When the radius of Vega was measured to high accuracy with an interferometer , it resulted in an unexpectedly large estimated value of 2.
However, this discrepancy can be explained if Vega is a rapidly rotating star that is being viewed from the direction of its pole of rotation.
The pole of Vega—its axis of rotation—is inclined no more than five degrees from the line-of-sight to the Earth.
At the high end of estimates for the rotation velocity for Vega is The estimated polar radius of this star is 2. As viewed from the poles, this results in a darker lower-intensity limb than would normally be expected for a spherically symmetric star.
The temperature gradient may also mean that Vega has a convection zone around the equator,   while the remainder of the atmosphere is likely to be in almost pure radiative equilibrium.
As a result, if Vega were viewed along the plane of its equator instead of almost pole-on, then its overall brightness would be lower.
As Vega had long been used as a standard star for calibrating telescopes, the discovery that it is rapidly rotating may challenge some of the underlying assumptions that were based on it being spherically symmetric.
With the viewing angle and rotation rate of Vega now better known, this will allow improved instrument calibrations. In astronomy, those elements with higher atomic numbers than helium are termed "metals".
The unusually low metallicity of Vega makes it a weak Lambda Boötis star. One possibility is that the chemical peculiarity may be the result of diffusion or mass loss, although stellar models show that this would normally only occur near the end of a star's hydrogen-burning lifespan.
Another possibility is that the star formed from an interstellar medium of gas and dust that was unusually metal-poor.
The observed helium to hydrogen ratio in Vega is 0. This may be caused by the disappearance of a helium convection zone near the surface.
Energy transfer is instead performed by the radiative process , which may be causing an abundance anomaly through diffusion.
The radial velocity of Vega is the component of this star's motion along the line-of-sight to the Earth.
Movement away from the Earth will cause the light from Vega to shift to a lower frequency toward the red , or to a higher frequency toward the blue if the motion is toward the Earth.
Thus the velocity can be measured from the amount of shift of the star's spectrum. Motion transverse to the line of sight causes the position of Vega to shift with respect to the more distant background stars.
Careful measurement of the star's position allows this angular movement, known as proper motion , to be calculated. Vega's proper motion is The net proper motion of Vega is Although Vega is at present only the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, the star is slowly brightening as proper motion causes it to approach the Sun.
Based on this star's kinematic properties, it appears to belong to a stellar association called the Castor Moving Group.
However, Vega may be much older than this group, so the membership remains uncertain. All members of the group are moving in nearly the same direction with similar space velocities.
Membership in a moving group implies a common origin for these stars in an open cluster that has since become gravitationally unbound.
One of the early results from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite IRAS was the discovery of excess infrared flux coming from Vega, beyond what would be expected from the star alone.
It was proposed that this radiation came from a field of orbiting particles with a dimension on the order of a millimeter, as anything smaller would eventually be removed from the system by radiation pressure or drawn into the star by means of Poynting—Robertson drag.
This effect is most pronounced for tiny particles that are closer to the star. To maintain this amount of dust in orbit around Vega, a continual source of replenishment would be required.
A proposed mechanism for maintaining the dust was a disk of coalesced bodies that were in the process of collapsing to form a planet.
Following the discovery of an infrared excess around Vega, other stars have been found that display a similar anomaly that is attributable to dust emission.
As of , about of these stars have been found, and they have come to be termed "Vega-like" or "Vega-excess" stars. It is believed that these may provide clues to the origin of the Solar System.
By , the Spitzer Space Telescope had produced high-resolution infrared images of the dust around Vega.
Production of the dust would require collisions between asteroids in a population corresponding to the Kuiper Belt around the Sun. Thus the dust is more likely created by a debris disk around Vega, rather than from a protoplanetary disk as was earlier thought.
The disk of dust is produced as radiation pressure from Vega pushes debris from collisions of larger objects outward. However, continuous production of the amount of dust observed over the course of Vega's lifetime would require an enormous starting mass—estimated as hundreds of times the mass of Jupiter.
Hence it is more likely to have been produced as the result of a relatively recent breakup of a moderate-sized or larger comet or asteroid, which then further fragmented as the result of collisions between the smaller components and other bodies.
This dusty disk would be relatively young on the time scale of the star's age, and it will eventually be removed unless other collision events supply more dust.
Hopkins in ,  revealed evidence for an inner dust band around Vega. This was hypothesized as either a perturbation of the dust disk by a planet or else an orbiting object that was surrounded by dust.
However, images by the Keck telescope had ruled out a companion down to magnitude 16, which would correspond to a body with more than 12 times the mass of Jupiter.
Determining the nature of the planet has not been straightforward; a paper hypothesizes that the clumps are caused by a roughly Jupiter-mass planet on an eccentric orbit.
Dust would collect in orbits that have mean-motion resonances with this planet—where their orbital periods form integer fractions with the period of the planet—producing the resulting clumpiness.
The migration of this planet would likely require gravitational interaction with a second, higher-mass planet in a smaller orbit.
Using a coronagraph on the Subaru telescope in Hawaii in , astronomers were able to further constrain the size of a planet orbiting Vega to no more than 5—10 times the mass of Jupiter.
The observations showed that the debris ring is smooth and symmetric. No evidence was found of the blobs reported earlier, casting doubts on the hypothesized giant planet.
Although a planet has yet to be directly observed around Vega, the presence of a planetary system can not yet be ruled out. Thus there could be smaller, terrestrial planets orbiting closer to the star.
The inclination of planetary orbits around Vega is likely to be closely aligned to the equatorial plane of this star. From the perspective of an observer on a hypothetical planet around Vega, the Sun would appear as a faint 4.
Among the northern Polynesian people, Vega was known as whetu o te tau , the year star. For a period of history it marked the start of their new year when the ground would be prepared for planting.
Eventually this function became denoted by the Pleiades. In Babylonian astronomy , Vega may have been one of the stars named Dilgan, "the Messenger of Light".
To the ancient Greeks , the constellation Lyra was formed from the harp of Orpheus , with Vega as its handle.
In Zoroastrianism , Vega was sometimes associated with Vanant, a minor divinity whose name means "conqueror". The indigenous Boorong people of northwestern Victoria named it as Neilloan ,  "the flying Loan ".
Further research has been done and this event has been analyzed by Nilesh Oak based upon using astronomical calculations in his book on Mahabharata dating.
Medieval astrologers counted Vega as one of the Behenian stars  and related it to chrysolite and winter savory. Cornelius Agrippa listed its kabbalistic sign under Vultur cadens , a literal Latin translation of the Arabic name.
Vega became the first star to have a car named after it with the French Facel Vega line of cars from onwards, and later on, in America, Chevrolet launched the Vega in Coordinates : 18 h 36 m From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the star. For other uses, see Vega disambiguation. Star in the constellation Lyra. Location of Vega in the constellation Lyra.
Allen's Astrophysical Qualities 4th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag. See: Matteucci, Francesca The Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy.
Astrophysics and Space Science Library. UVW is a Cartesian coordinate system , so the Euclidean distance formula applies. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed.
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